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This is my first time trying out Vulnhub machine and learn as much as possible 💪 😄


This Kioptrix VM Image are easy challenges. The object of the game is to acquire root access via any means possible (except actually hacking the VM server or player). The purpose of these games are to learn the basic tools and techniques in vulnerability assessment and exploitation. There are more than one ways to successfully complete the challenges.


There is a single flag that need to be acquired in the root user’s mail box.

Download Source:

Download from here 👉,22/


Personally, I am using Virtual…

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Burp is usually described as an intercepting proxy:

  • This means that Burp sits between the user’s web browser and application’s web server.
  • It intercepts or captures all the traffic flowing between them → This type of behavior is commonly referred to as a Proxy Service.
  • Penetration testers use intercepting proxies to capture traffic flowing between web browser and a web application for the purpose of analysis and manipulation:

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Setting up a web app penetration testing lab:

  • The Broken Web Application (BWA) is an OWASP project that provides a self-contained VM complete with variety of applications with different kinds of known vulnerabilities.
  • The applications in this VM will provide students or learners a good medium to learn about the web application security, practice their skills, observe the web attacks and make use of penetration tools such as Burp.
  • The OWASP BWA VM that I mentioned above can be downloaded from

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When looping in Python, one of the most common tools is the range function. Range object is a special type of object in Python that returns an object that produces a sequence of integers from start to stop. Let’s explore it a little bit more about range:

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When it comes to our machines the concept of loops and looping is really powerful. With logical operators and conditional logic, we are able to skip lines in our program. Then, we don’t need to go one by one through the lines.

However, loops do a interesting things which allows us to run lines of code over and over. It is really powerful because that mean we can run codes thousand or millions of times. This is where machine excel at performing small tasks over and over with high speed that is way better than human.

👉 Therefore, loops are…

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Short Circuiting is quite simple.

Before looking into short circuiting, lets see few coding first:

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Let’s talk about the idea of truthy and falsey in Python programming and what did they mean. Up till now, we used boolean which is pretty easy and simple. However, Python can do other thing as well. Let’s talk about it.

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Conditional Logic is an important concept all over the programming. We learn about boolean (True/False) and you might be wondering why are they useful. When it comes to conditional logic, boolean are really important.

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There is another data structure that is known as tuple. A tuples are similar to lists but unlike list we cannot modify the them where they are immutable.

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Well, a dictionary of values can hold any sort of data type but what about the keys?

Dictionary Keys:

Koay Yong Cett

A Bachelor CS student with major in Network Security (UniSZa). Every stories I shared is based on my personal opinion. Thanks you. Having my Internship now.

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